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What Are The Birth Control Options For Men?

What are the birth control options for men?

Table of Contents

Birth control options in men are methods to prevent and reduce the chances of sexual partner fertility during sex. Some of these male prevention options include condoms, which are temporary and non-invasive. On the other hand, Vasectomy is a permanent method of preventing pregnancy in men.

Birth control options for men mean the use of tools, drugs, substances, sexual methods, or surgery in order to prevent the formation of sperm or pregnancy. With this method, people can choose when to have children. Various tools and methods for women and men help prevent pregnancy. Some methods are more reliable than others. In most cases, the effectiveness of a method depends on how carefully it is used.

How does birth control for men work?

How does birth control for men work?

Birth control options for men work by preventing sperm from entering the vagina. For example, using a condom correctly ensures that sperm does not reach the uterus and fertilize any eggs. The implantation of sperm in the egg is the beginning of pregnancy.

Different birth control methods have different success rates, similar to birth control options for women. Correct use of birth control or use of more than one type of birth control significantly reduces the chance of unwanted pregnancy.

What options are currently available for male birth control?

Some important factors for male contraception are reliability, quick reversibility, few mild side effects, no effect on libido, easy to obtain or use, easy access, and affordability.


Removal refers to the removal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. This method may prevent sperm from entering the vagina. With the correct approach, the effectiveness of withdrawal is about 96%. However, 22 percent of couples using this method will experience pregnancy within a year.

The optimal approach requires the individual to withdraw before any ejaculation occurs, not just at the beginning of ejaculation (this can be difficult). It also requires preventing ejaculation from coming into contact with the vagina, so the penis must be completely removed from the vagina.


The benefits of this method include the following:

  • Freeway to reduce the risk of pregnancy
  • It may be effective if the man withdraws before any ejaculation occurs


Disadvantages of this method include:

Fertility awareness

It is a method that focuses on monitoring the menstrual cycles of the female partner to determine the likely time of ovulation accurately. Partners can then avoid intercourse during this fertile window.

Men cannot practice this method alone. However, they can support female partners by charting their menstrual cycles and learning about approaches and cooperation when they need to abstain from sex.

The effectiveness of fertility awareness varies widely. It is most likely effective if a woman has regular and predictable menstrual cycles. On average, the failure rate is 2-23% per year.


The benefits of using the fertility awareness method include the following:

  • A free way to reduce the risk of pregnancy
  • It may be more effective if a person’s menstrual cycle is regular


Disadvantages of this method include:

  • Men cannot practice this method alone
  • Relies on abstinence during potentially fertile windows
  • It is less effective for women who do not have regular periods
  • No protection against sexually transmitted diseases


Vasectomy is the only permanent method of birth control for men. There are several different vasectomy procedures, but each works by preventing sperm from entering the vas deferens, the tube it normally passes through to exit the penis.

To cut or close this tube, the doctor may perform a minimally invasive outpatient or more complex surgical procedure. The right choice depends on the individual’s needs and overall health.

While some vasectomy procedures are reversible, the effectiveness of these procedures depends on the technique and skill of the specialist performing the vasectomy. It takes about three months for a vasectomy to be fully effective, so a couple should use alternative birth control methods during this time.

The success rate of a vasectomy is higher than 99%, although about 1 to 2% of people who undergo the procedure experience complications such as excessive bleeding or pain.


The benefits of vasectomy include:

  • Conventional vasectomy is more than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy.
  • This method eliminates the need to use other forms of contraception (both male and female).
  • Vasectomy does not change the production of testosterone, so there is no change in libido and orgasm.


The risks of vasectomy include:

  • It takes between 8 and 12 weeks for a vasectomy to start to protect against pregnancy.
  • The vasectomy is supposed to be permanent. The procedure is often, but not always, reversible, but you should not have a vasectomy if you think you might want to have children in the future.
  • Bruising, swelling, and pain may occur after the operation.
  • Like any other surgical procedure, vasectomy carries the risk of infection.
  • A hard, pea-sized lump may form from leaking sperm, called a sperm granuloma. Sperm granulomas can be painful but usually resolve on their own.
  • Accumulation of sperm in the testicles may cause a feeling of pressure that lasts for weeks to months.
  • If a man is worried about contracting a sexually transmitted disease, he should use a condom during sex after a vasectomy.



Condoms are a popular and available barrier method that can reduce the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. They come in a variety of shapes, colors, and sizes, and some contain a spermicidal lubricant to help kill sperm.

Most condoms are made of latex, but people who are allergic to latex may buy condoms made of other materials, such as polyurethane or polyisoprene. Condoms can be up to 98% effective. However, many people do not use them correctly every time. They may wear them too late, put the penis in the vagina after ejaculation, or do things that cause the condom to tear.


The benefits of using a condom include the following:

  • If the condom is used correctly, it effectively prevents pregnancy.
  • Condoms protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis.
  • They are widely available and cheap.


The risks of using condoms include the following:

  • Condoms can tear or slip off if they don’t fit properly.
  • Condoms may expire or be damaged by light and heat, making them more likely to tear during use.
  • If one of the couples is allergic to latex, he or she may have an allergic reaction to latex condoms.
  • Condoms lubricated with spermicide may increase the risk of urinary tract infections in people who have a vagina.


A spermicide is a substance that destroys sperm. When a person uses it as the only method of contraception, they should apply spermicide in the vagina. With normal use, spermicide fails about 21 percent of the time. For this reason, spermicide may be an option for people looking for extra protection alongside other methods, such as condoms. With normal use, the effectiveness is about 85%.


The benefits of using spermicide include the following:

  • When a person uses spermicide along with other contraceptive methods, it effectively reduces pregnancy.
  • It does not change hormone production.


The risk of using spermicides includes the following:

  • When a person only uses spermicide, there is a high failure rate.
  • For best results, a person should use another method of birth control.

Testosterone Injections

This hormone prevents the release of pituitary hormones that instruct the testicles to produce sperm. Weekly or monthly injections reduce sperm count and prevent pregnancy. These contraceptive hormonal injections have side effects. Injection site pain, weight gain, acne, abnormal blood lipid levels, and psychological effects. Studies show that testosterone alone is not as effective as when combined with progestin.

Hormonal Contraception Gel

This gel is applied daily on the skin and absorbs and prevents the formation of sperm. This gel is a combination of Nestorone (NES) and Testosterone (T). Nestorone is a progesterone-like hormone that acts on the testicles and stops sperm production. Testosterone is a male hormone and is included in maintaining libido.

Hormonal Combination Injections

These injections combine hormones with long-lasting action. These injections have been tested at intervals of 6 weeks and eight weeks. They greatly reduce sperm production. Side effects include local pain at the injection site, muscle pain, acne, and mood swings.

Testosterone Plus GnRH Antagonists

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists suppress the pituitary hormones that cause sperm production in the testicles. They are very effective in suppressing sperm production; it should be noted that GnRH antagonists are expensive and require frequent injections.

Non-hormonal Contraception — IVD

The doctor places this device inside the vas deferens. It filters sperm and prevents pregnancy is currently only an experimental technique, and studies have been conducted on its efficacy and safety.

The bottom line

Some people may consult a doctor to determine the best method of prevention according to their conditions. Dr. Arjang Naim MD can help to choose birth control options for men.

There are several options for female contraception that, in combination with contraception, such as condoms and spermicide, reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy. People may want to talk to their partner to decide which option is best for them.

Some types of birth control, such as vasectomy, require surgery. Healthcare professionals determine whether a person is a good candidate and provide information about how long a person may need to use other birth control methods after surgery to reduce the risk of pregnancy.

People should also contact a healthcare professional as soon as possible if they have symptoms of an STI or are at risk of contracting one of these infections.

Most sexually transmitted diseases are treatable, but one must ensure that during treatment, there is no risk of transmitting the infection to a partner. Some STDs cannot be cured, but medication can help reduce symptoms.

Additional questions

  1. Why is there no birth control pill for men?

Men do not have a monthly cycle like women do, which means birth control pills cannot stop the release of an egg to prevent pregnancy. Instead, male birth control pills are supposed to reduce sperm count or suppress various hormones.

  1. Can men get a temporary vasectomy?

In fact, there is no such thing as a temporary vasectomy. Vasectomy is designed to be a permanent birth control option for men. However, although they are permanent, they are also reversible. Through a procedure called a reverse vasectomy, the vas deferens can be reattached to the male reproductive system.

  1. Why menstrual cycle is important for pregnancy?

During the menstrual cycle, hormones cause the eggs in the ovaries to mature. When the egg is mature, it means it is ready to be fertilized by a sperm cell. Hormones also make the lining of the uterus thick and spongy. Therefore, monitoring the menstrual cycle helps to determine the time of ovulation.

  1. Is spermicide more effective than condoms?

Condoms alone are about 98% effective in preventing pregnancy when used as directed, but spermicides alone are about 72% effective.

  1. What are 3 Fertility Awareness Methods?
  • Standard days method
  • Basal body temperature (BBT) method
  • Cervical mucous method